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Declension of feminine nouns

Upper Sorbian feminine nouns in the nominative singular end with -a or, much rarer, with a consonant. Those ones that end with -a may be both soft-stem (when the last consonant of the word's stem is bj, č, j, l, mj, nj, pj, rj, š, ć, wj or ž) and hard-stem (when the last consonant of their stem is b, c, d, h, ch, k, ł, m, n, p, r, s, t, w or z). Those which end with a consonant are hard-stem when they end with c, s or z; in all other cases they are soft-stem, even if its last consonant's softness may not be apparent in the nominative form (it becomes clear in cases formed with a diffrent than a zero ending). This group also includes some irregular nouns.

The following table shows the case endings of feminine nouns:

singular
stem:softc z shardvelar
N-a, -0-a
G-e-y-i
D-i-y-’e
A-u, -0-u
I-u
L= dative
V= nominative
dual
stem:softc z shardvelar
N-i-y-’e
G-ow
D-omaj
A= nominative
I= dative
L= dative
V= nominative
plural
stem:softc z shardvelar
N-e-y-i
G-ow
D-am
A= nominative
I-emi-ami
L-ach
V= nominative

The symbol -0 stands for a zero ending (an ending that is not represented by any sound in speech nor by any letter in writing).


Consonant and vowel changes


The palatalising -’e ending

An apostrophe before an ending (-’e) signals that some consonants when preceeding this ending alternate as shown below:

consonant changeexample
N sing. > D sing.
meaning
d > woda > woewater
t > ćsamota > samoćelonliness
tr > sotra > soesister
ł > ltoboła > tobolebag
ch > šropucha > ropušecress
h > zdróha > drózestreet

Whenever any other consonant preceeds an ending marked with an apostrophe, the consonant turns into its soft counterpart:

consonant changeexample
N sing. > L sing.
meaning
n > njžona > žonjewoman
w > wjkruwa > kruwjecow

This ending in feminine nouns is only used with hard-stem and velar-stem nouns.


The ó : o alternation

Some feminine nouns that in the nominative singular end with a consonant and have -ó- as their last vowel replace it with -o- in the other forms, ex.:

vowel changeexample
N sing. > G sing.
meaning
ó > onóc > nocynight

Additional comments on some endings


G sing., N plur., A plur.

The -y ending is proper for hard-stem nouns (both with Nom.sing. ending with -a and with a consonant) excluding those that have h, ch or k as the last consonant of their stem, which have here the -i ending.
The -e ending is used with all soft-stem feminine nouns.

D sing., L sing., N du., A du.

Soft-stem nouns have the -i ending. Those of the hard-stem nouns that have c, s or z as the last consonant of their stem have the -y ending. The other hard-stem nouns have the -'e ending.

A sing.

Those nouns which in the Nom.sing. end with -a have the -u ending, and those the Nom.sing. of which end with a consonant have the zero ending.

G plur.

All nouns may have the -ow ending and the soft-stem ones may also alternatively have the -i ending.

Ins.plur.

The -ami ending is proper for hard-stem nouns and the -emi for those of the soft-stem type.


Examples


A hard-stem noun ending with -a:
wróna crow

singulardualplural
Nwrónawrónjewróny
Gwrónywrónowwrónow
Dwrónjewrónomajwrónam
Awrónuwrónjewróny
I(z) wrónu(z) wrónomaj(z) wrónami
L(we) wrónje(we) wrónomaj(we) wrónach
Vwróna!wrónje!wróny!


A velar-stem noun ending in -a:
muka flour

singulardualplural
Nmukamucemuki
Gmukimukowmukow
Dmucemukomajmukam
Amukumucemuki
I(z) muku(z) mukomaj(z) mukami
L(w) muce(w) mukomaj(w) mukach
Vmuka!muce!muki!


A hard-stem noun ending with c s or z:
pomoc help

singulardualplural
Npomocpomocypomocy
Gpomocypomocowpomocow
Dpomocypomocomajpomocam
Apomocpomocypomocy
I(z) pomocu(z) pomocomaj(z) pomocami
L(w) pomocy(w) pomocomaj(w) pomocach
Vpomoc!pomocy!pomocy!


A soft-stem noun ending with another consonant:
kosć bone

singulardualplural
Nkosćkosćikosće
Gkosćekosćowkosćow/kosći
Dkosćikosćomajkosćam
Akosćkosćikosće
I(z) kosću(z) kosćomaj(z) kosćemi
L(w) kosći(w) kosćomaj(w) kosćach
Vkosć!kosći!kosće!



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Na tem spletnem mestu uporabljamo piškotke, in sicer za naslednja namena:

1. za shranjevanje vaših izidov v igri Besede in slike na vaši napravi in za prikaz statistike teh izidov na strani Vaši izidi; ti podatki niso na voljo drugim uporabnikom, jih ne shranjujemo, ne analiziramo in ne delimo z drugimi;

2. za prikaz oglasov Google. Preberite spodnjo informacijo o piškotkih Google za uporabnike iz EGP in izven EGP (pomaknite navzdol).

Uporabniki iz Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Oglasi Google, ki se na našem spletnem mestu prikažejo uporabnikom iz EGP, se ne prilagajajo. Čeprav ti oglasi ne uporabljajo piškotkov za individualno prilaganje oglasov, jih uporabljajo za omogočanje omejevanja števila prikazov, ustvarjanje zbirnih poročil o oglasih in preprečevanje goljufij in zlorab.
Več o piškotkih Google

Uporabniki izven Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Za uporabnike iz držav zunaj EGP piškotke Google uporabljamo za prilagajanje oglasov. Podatke o vaši uporabi spletnega mesta delimo z Google.
Več o piškotkih Google

Onemogočanje piškotkov

Če ne soglašate z uporabo piškotkov, jih onemogočite v nastavitvah svojega brskalnika ali ne uporabljajte našega spletnega mesta. Če piškotke onemogočite, bodo nekatere možnosti igre Besede in slike nedostopne.
OK, razumem.