Slovnica gornje lužiške srbščine

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Nouns

Each Sorbian noun is of one of the following three genders: masculine (masc.), feminine (fem.) and neuter (neut.). They are inflected for three numbers: singular (sing.), dual (du.) (used when reffering to two objects), plural (pl.) and for seven cases: nominative (N), genitive (G), dative (D), accusative (A), instrumental (I), locative (L) and vocative (V).

Nouns are never accompanied by articles, as there are no articles in Sorbian.

Declension of masculine nouns

Upper Sorbian masculine nouns as a rule in the nominative singular end with a consonant. Some of them may also end with -o (some personal names) and with -a.

Nouns that end with a consonant have the following set of endings:

singulardualplural
N-0-aj/-ej-e, -y/-i, -i, -ojo, -'a/-ja
G-a, -u-ow-ow/-i
D-ej-omaj-am
A=N/=G=N/=G=N/=G
I-om-omaj-ami/-emi
L-u/-'e-omaj-ach
V-o/-'e=N=N
The apostrophe before an ending shows that the preceding consonant of the noun's stem alternates according to the rules that are explained here.

The symbol -0 stands for a zero ending (an ending that is not represented by any sound in speech nor by any letter in writing).

Here you have explained how to distinguish so called soft-stem and hard-stem nouns.

Click here to see the alternations that take place during the process of declension of nouns including the ó vowel.

Some case endings need additional comment.

Gen.sing.
Some masculine nouns may have both -a and -u endings, but most of them may only have -a. There are no nouns that could have only -u ending in the Genitive singular, so the safest way to avoid mistakes is to use always only the -a ending.

Acc.sing., Acc.du., Acc.plur.
In singular the accusative ending coincides with that of nominative, when a noun refers to a thing or a phenomenon, and with that of genitive, when a noun refers to a person or an animal. In dual and plural the accusative ending coincides with the genitive's one (resp. dual or plural) only for nouns that stand for a human being.

Loc.sing.
All the so-called soft-stem nouns and those that in Nom.sing. end with -c, s or z always have the -u ending. Other nouns may have both -u and -'e endings.

Voc.sing.
The -o ending usually (but not exclusively) have the soft-stem nouns and those that in the Nom.sing. end with h, ch, k, c, s. z. There is no rule that would describe the usage of vocative endings with other nouns.

Nom.plur.
Nouns that stand for animals or things (also phenomena) have the -y/-i ending (-i when a noun ends with h, ch or k and -y in all other cases) when they are hard-stem, and the -e ending when they are soft-stem.
Nouns that stand for human beings usually have the -ojo ending when they have only one syllable in the Nom.sing. When they are longer they may have one or more of all others Nom.plur. endings.

Gen.plur.
All nouns may have the -ow ending but some of the soft-stem nouns may also have the -i ending.

Ins.plur.
Hard-stem nouns have the -ami ending and soft stem ones have the -emi ending.

The following tables show some examples of masculine nouns' declensions:

A hard-stem personal noun with a monosyllabic nominative singular
nan father
singulardualplural
Nnannanajnanojo
Gnanananownanow
Dnanejnanomajnanam
Ananananownanow
I(z) nanom(z) nanomaj(z) nanami
L(w) nanje(w) nanomaj(w) nanach
Vnano!nanaj!nanojo!

A hard-stem non-animated noun:
hrěch sin
singulardualplural
Nhrěchhrěchajhrěchi
Ghrěcha/hrěchuhrěchowhrěchow
Dhrěchejhrěchomajhrěcham
Ahrěchhrěchajhrěchi
I(z) hrěchom(z) hrěchomaj(z) hrěchami
L(w) hrěchu/hrěše(w) hrěchomaj(w) hrěchach
Vhrěcho!hrěchaj!hrěchi!

A velar-stem animated non-personal noun:
hołb pigeon
singulardualplural
Nhołbhołbjejhołbje
Ghołbjahołbjowhołbjow
Dhołbjejhołbjomajhołbjam
Ahołbjahołbjejhołbje
I(z) hołbjom(z) hołbjomaj(z) hołbjemi
L(w) hołbju(w) hołbjomaj(w) hołbjach
Vhołbjo!hołbjej!hołbje!

Declension of feminine nouns

Upper Sorbian feminine nouns in the nominative singular end with -a, or (much rarer) with a consonant. Those ones that end with -a may be both soft-stem (when the last consonant of the word's stem is bj, č, j, l, mj, nj, pj, rj, š, ć, wj or ž) and hard-stem (when the last consonant of their stem is b, c, d, h, ch, k, ł, m, n, p, r, s, t, w or z). Those which end with a consonant are hard-stem when they end with c, s or z; in all other cases they are soft-stem, even if its last consonant's softness may not be apparent in the nominative form (it becomes clear in cases formed with a diffrent than a zero ending). This group also includes some irregular nouns.

The following table shows the case endings of feminine nouns:

singulardualplural
N-a/-0-'e/-y/-i-y/-i/-e
G-y/-i/-e-ow-ow/-i
D-'e/-y/-i-omaj-am
A-u/-0=N=N
I-u-omaj-ami/-emi
L-'e/-y/-i-omaj-ach
V=N=N=N
The apostrophe before an ending (eg -'e) shows that the preceeding consonant of the noun's stem is softened and/or alternates according to the rules that are explained here.

The symbol -0 stands for a zero ending (an ending that is not represented by any sound in speech or by any letter in writting).

Click here to see the alternations that take place during the process of declension of nouns including the ó vowel.

Some of the feminine case endings need additional comment:

Gen.sing., Nom.plur., Acc.plur.
The -y ending is proper for hard-stem nouns (both with Nom.sing. ending with -a and with a consonant) excluding those that have h, ch or k as the last consonant of their stem, which have here the -i ending.
The -e ending is used with all soft-stem feminine nouns.

Dat.sing., Loc.sing., Nom.du., Acc.du.
Soft-stem nouns have the -i ending. Those of the hard-stem nouns that have c, s or z as the last consonant of their stem have the -y ending. The other hard-stem nouns have the -'e ending.

Acc.sing.
Those nouns which in the Nom.sing. end with -a have the -u ending, and those the Nom.sing. of which end with a consonant have the zero ending.

Gen.plur.
All nouns may have the -ow ending and the soft-stem ones may also alternatively have the -i ending.

Ins.plur.
The -ami ending is proper for hard-stem nouns and the -emi for those of the soft-stem type.

The following tables show some examples of feminine nouns' declensions:

A hard-stem noun ending with -a:
wróna crow
singulardualplural
Nwrónawrónjewróny
Gwrónywrónowwrónow
Dwrónjewrónomajwrónam
Awrónuwrónjewróny
I(z) wrónu(z) wrónomaj(z) wrónami
L(we) wrónje(we) wrónomaj(we) wrónach
Vwróna!wrónje!wróny!

A velar-stem noun ending in -a:
muka flour
singulardualplural
Nmukamucemuki
Gmukimukowmukow
Dmucemukomajmukam
Amukumucemuki
I(z) muku(z) mukomaj(z) mukami
L(w) muce(w) mukomaj(w) mukach
Vmuka!muce!muki!

A hard-stem noun ending with c s or z:
pomoc help
singulardualplural
Npomocpomocypomocy
Gpomocypomocowpomocow
Dpomocypomocomajpomocam
Apomocpomocypomocy
I(z) pomocu(z) pomocomaj(z) pomocami
L(w) pomocy(w) pomocomaj(w) pomocach
Vpomoc!pomocy!pomocy!

A soft-stem noun ending with another consonant:
kosć bone
singulardualplural
Nkosćkosćikosće
Gkosćekosćowkosćow/kosći
Dkosćikosćomajkosćam
Akosćkosćikosće
I(z) kosću(z) kosćomaj(z) kosćemi
L(w) kosći(w) kosćomaj(w) kosćach
Vkosć!kosći!kosće!

Declension of neuter nouns

Upper Sorbian neuter nouns in the nominative singular end with -o, or (much rarer, only after nj and ć) with -e. Some of them in Gen., Dat., Ins., and Loc. sing. and in all the cases of dual and plural lenghten their stems with -et-/-eć- or -en(j)-. It is always shown in the word's entry in the dictionary, as the Genitive (a lenghtened form) appears there along with the nominative (the basic form). Some of the neuter nouns have irregularities in their declension patterns.

The following table shows the case endings of neuter nouns:

singulardualplural
N-o/-e-'e/-y/-i-a
G-a-ow-ow/-0
D-u-omaj-am
A=N=N=N
I-om-omaj-ami/-emi
L-u/-'e-omaj-ach
V=N=N=N
The apostrophe before an ending (eg -'e) shows that the preceeding consonant of the noun's stem is softened and/or alternates according to the rules that are explained here.

The symbol -0 stands for a zero ending (an ending that is not represented by any sound in speech or by any letter in writting).

Click here to see the alternations that take place during the process of declension of nouns including the ó vowel.

Some of the neuter case endings need additional comment:

Loc.sing.
Soft-stem nouns and those of the hard-stem nouns whose stem ends with c, s or z have the -u ending. Hard-stem nouns, excluding those mentioned above, have the -'e ending. Nouns with a stem ending with h, ch or k may appear with both endings.

Nom.du.
Soft-stem nouns have the -i ending. Those of hard-stem nouns that have c, s or z as the last consonant of their stem have the -y ending. The other hard-stem nouns have the -'e ending.

Gen.plur.
Few nouns may have the zero ending, but in most of them it's used interchangeably with the regular -ow ending.

Ins.plur.
The -ami ending is used with hard-stem nouns and the -emi with those of the soft-stem type.

The following tables show some examples of neuter nouns' declensions:

A hard-stem noun with stem not ending in c, s, z:
trašidło monster
singulardualplural
Ntrašidłotrašidletrašidła
Gtrašidłatrašidłowtrašidłow
Dtrašidłutrašidłomajtrašidłam
Atrašidłotrašidletrašidła
I(z) trašidłom(z) trašidłomaj(z) trašidłami
L(w) trašidle(w) trašidłomaj(w) trašidłach
Vtrašidło!trašidle!trašidła!

A hard-stem noun with stem ending in c s or z:
słowjeso verb
singulardualplural
Nsłowjesosłowjesysłowjesa
Gsłowjesasłowjesowsłowjesow
Dsłowjesusłowjesomajsłowjesam
Asłowjesosłowjesysłowjesa
I(ze) słowjesom(ze) słowjesomaj(ze) słowjesami
L(w) słowjesu(w) słowjesomaj(w) słowjesach
Vsłowjeso!słowjesy!słowjesa!

A velar-stem noun:
křidleško small wing
singulardualplural
Nkřidleškokřidlešcekřidleška
Gkřidleškakřidleškowkřidleškow
Dkřidleškukřidleškomajkřidleškam
Akřidleškokřidlešcekřidleška
I(z) křidleškom(z) křidleškomaj(z) křidleškami
L(w) křidlešku(w) křidleškomaj(w) křidleškach
Vkřidleško!křidlešce!křidleška!

A soft-stem noun:
žiwjenje life
singulardualplural
Nžiwjenježiwjenižiwjenja
Gžiwjenjažiwjenjowžiwjenjow
Džiwjenjužiwjenjomajžiwjenjam
Ažiwjenježiwjenižiwjenja
I(z) žiwjenjom(z) žiwjenjomaj(z) žiwjenjemi
L(w) žiwjenju(w) žiwjenjomaj(w) žiwjenjach
Vžiwjenje!žiwjeni!žiwjenja!

A noun that lenghtens its stem with -at-/-eć-:
kačo duckling
singulardualplural
Nkačokačećikačata
Gkačećakačećowkačatow
Dkačećukačećomajkačatam
Akačećokačećikačata
I(z) kačećom(z) kačećomaj(z) kačatami
L(w) kačeću(w) kačećomaj(w) kačatach
Vkačo!kačeći!kačata!

A noun that lenghtens its stem with -en(j)-:
promjo ray
singulardualplural
Npromjopromjenipromjenja
Gpromjenjapromjenjowpromjenjow
Dpromjenjupromjenjomajpromjenjam
Apromjopromjenipromjenja
I(z) promjenjom(z) promjenjomaj(z) promjenjemi
L(w) promjenju(w) promjenjomaj(w) promjenjach
Vpromjo!promjeni!promjenja!

Irregular neuter nouns

woko eye
singulardualplural
Nwokowočiwoči
Gwokawočowwočow
Dwokuwočomajwočam/wočom
Awokowočiwoči
I(z) wokom(z) wočomaj(z) wočemi
L(we) woku(we) wočomaj(we) wočach
Vwoko!woči!woči!

wucho ear
singulardualplural
Nwuchowušiwuši
Gwuchawušowwušow
Dwuchuwušomajwušam/wušom
Awuchowušiwuši
I(z) wuchom(z) wušomaj(z) wušemi
L(we) wuchu(we) wušomaj(we) wušach
Vwucho!woči!woči!

dźěćo child
singulardualplural
Ndźěćodźěsćidźěći
Gdźěsćadźěsćow/dźěsćidźěći
Ddźěsćudźěsćomajdźěćom
Adźěćodźěsćidźěći
I(z) dźěsćom(z) dźěsćomaj(z) dźěćimi
L(w) dźěsću(w) dźěsćomaj(w) dźěćoch
Vdźěćo!dźěsći!dźěći!

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Na tem spletnem mestu uporabljamo piškotke, in sicer za naslednja namena:

1. za shranjevanje vaših izidov v igri Besede in slike na vaši napravi in za prikaz statistike teh izidov na strani Vaši izidi; ti podatki niso na voljo drugim uporabnikom, jih ne shranjujemo, ne analiziramo in ne delimo z drugimi;

2. za prikaz oglasov Google. Preberite spodnjo informacijo o piškotkih Google za uporabnike iz EGP in izven EGP (pomaknite navzdol).

Uporabniki iz Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Oglasi Google, ki se na našem spletnem mestu prikažejo uporabnikom iz EGP, se ne prilagajajo. Čeprav ti oglasi ne uporabljajo piškotkov za individualno prilaganje oglasov, jih uporabljajo za omogočanje omejevanja števila prikazov, ustvarjanje zbirnih poročil o oglasih in preprečevanje goljufij in zlorab.
Več o piškotkih Google

Uporabniki izven Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Za uporabnike iz držav zunaj EGP piškotke Google uporabljamo za prilagajanje oglasov. Podatke o vaši uporabi spletnega mesta delimo z Google.
Več o piškotkih Google

Onemogočanje piškotkov

Če ne soglašate z uporabo piškotkov, jih onemogočite v nastavitvah svojega brskalnika ali ne uporabljajte našega spletnega mesta. Če piškotke onemogočite, bodo nekatere možnosti igre Besede in slike nedostopne.
OK, razumem.