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Perfective and imperfective verbs

Almost every Upper Sorbian verb is inherently eather imperfective (impf.) or perfective (pf.) (there are few verbs that are ambiguous in this respect, ie. may be both impf. and pf.). The verbs' quality of being perfective or nonperfective is called verb aspect and is alaways shown in dictionary entries.

Perfective and imperfective verbs reffering to the same kind of action are not two different forms of the same word. They are two different words. For instance, both impf. brać and pf. wzać translate to English as to take but it is clearly visible they are not the same verb. However, most of the impf.–pf. verb pairs share the same root modified with different additional morphemes, ex. impf. pisać vs. pf. napisać to write, impf. zapaleć vs. pf. zapalić to set on fire.

A perfective verb describes an action, that doesn't recure and:

has just finished or started;

finished or started some time ago;

will have finished or started;

will finish or start.

As we can see, a perfective verb apllies only to the past or future and not to the present.



A nonperfective verb describes an action that recures, recured or will recure or lasts for some period in the past, present or future.



Compare the use of pf. and npf. verbs in the following Upper Sorbian translations of English sentences:



[nan father; kniha book; brać bjerje npf. to take; wzać wozmje pf. to take]

A PAST ACTION:

The father took a book.

Nan wza knihu.



The father has taken a book.

Nan je wzał knihu.



The father was taking a book.

Nan bjerješe knihu.



The father has been taking a book.

Nan je brał knihu.



The father used to take a book (on every Sunday).

Nan bjerješe knihu (kóždu njedźelu).



A PRESENT ACTION:

The father takes a book (on every Sunday).

Nan bjerje knihu (kóždu njedźelu).



The father is taking a book.

Nan bjerje knihu.



A FUTURE ACTION:

The father will have taken a book.

Nan wozmje knihu.



The father will take a book (on this Sunday).

Nan wozmje knihu (tu njedźelu).



The father will take a book (on every Sunday).

Nan budźe brał knihu (kóždu njedźelu)



The father will be taking a book.

Nan budźe brał knihu.


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Na tem spletnem mestu uporabljamo piškotke, in sicer za naslednja namena:

1. za shranjevanje vaših izidov v igri Besede in slike na vaši napravi in za prikaz statistike teh izidov na strani Vaši izidi; ti podatki niso na voljo drugim uporabnikom, jih ne shranjujemo, ne analiziramo in ne delimo z drugimi;

2. za prikaz oglasov Google. Preberite spodnjo informacijo o piškotkih Google za uporabnike iz EGP in izven EGP (pomaknite navzdol).

Uporabniki iz Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Oglasi Google, ki se na našem spletnem mestu prikažejo uporabnikom iz EGP, se ne prilagajajo. Čeprav ti oglasi ne uporabljajo piškotkov za individualno prilaganje oglasov, jih uporabljajo za omogočanje omejevanja števila prikazov, ustvarjanje zbirnih poročil o oglasih in preprečevanje goljufij in zlorab.
Več o piškotkih Google

Uporabniki izven Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Za uporabnike iz držav zunaj EGP piškotke Google uporabljamo za prilagajanje oglasov. Podatke o vaši uporabi spletnega mesta delimo z Google.
Več o piškotkih Google

Onemogočanje piškotkov

Če ne soglašate z uporabo piškotkov, jih onemogočite v nastavitvah svojega brskalnika ali ne uporabljajte našega spletnega mesta. Če piškotke onemogočite, bodo nekatere možnosti igre Besede in slike nedostopne.
OK, razumem.