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Imperfective and perfective verbs


Almost every Upper Sorbian verb is inherently eather imperfective (impf.) or perfective (perf.) (there are few verbs that are ambiguous in this respect, ie. may be both impf. and perf.). The verbs' quality of being perfective or imperfective is called verb aspect and is alaways shown in dictionary entries.

Perfective and imperfective verbs referring to the same kind of action are not two different forms of the same word. They are two different words. For instance, both impf. brać and perf. wzać translate to English as to take but it is clearly visible they are not the same verb. However, most of the impf.–perf. verb pairs share the same root modified with different additional morphemes, ex. impf. pisać vs. perf. napisać to write, impf. zapaleć vs. perf. zapalić to set on fire.


Imperfective verbs


An imperfective verb describes an ongoing, incomplete action that lasted, lasts or will last for some period or an action that recured, recures or will recure (a habitual action). It puts focus on the process itself rather than its result.

Imperfective verbs are used to describe past, present and future actions.


Perfective verbs


A perfective verb describes an accomplished action that doesn't recure. It puts focus on the result of a process.

Perfective verbs are used to describe past and future actions only but not the present ones.

Examples:


Imperfective:

Wčera sym čitała knihu.
yesterday
 
be
1.sing.pres.
read
impf. past.part. sing.fem.
book
A sing.
adverbcompound verbdirect object
Yesterday, I read (some part of) a/the book. /
Yesterday, I read a/the book (for a while).

Perfective:

Wčera sym přečitała knihu.
yesterday
 
be
1.sing.pres.
read
perf. past.part. sing.fem.
book
A sing.
adverbcompound verbdirect object
Yesterday, I read a/the book (till the end). /
Yesterday, I finished reading a/the book.



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Na tem spletnem mestu uporabljamo piškotke, in sicer za naslednja namena:

1. za shranjevanje vaših izidov v igri Besede in slike na vaši napravi in za prikaz statistike teh izidov na strani Vaši izidi; ti podatki niso na voljo drugim uporabnikom, jih ne shranjujemo, ne analiziramo in ne delimo z drugimi;

2. za prikaz oglasov Google. Preberite spodnjo informacijo o piškotkih Google za uporabnike iz EGP in izven EGP (pomaknite navzdol).

Uporabniki iz Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Oglasi Google, ki se na našem spletnem mestu prikažejo uporabnikom iz EGP, se ne prilagajajo. Čeprav ti oglasi ne uporabljajo piškotkov za individualno prilaganje oglasov, jih uporabljajo za omogočanje omejevanja števila prikazov, ustvarjanje zbirnih poročil o oglasih in preprečevanje goljufij in zlorab.
Več o piškotkih Google

Uporabniki izven Evropskega gospodarskega prostora

Za uporabnike iz držav zunaj EGP piškotke Google uporabljamo za prilagajanje oglasov. Podatke o vaši uporabi spletnega mesta delimo z Google.
Več o piškotkih Google

Onemogočanje piškotkov

Če ne soglašate z uporabo piškotkov, jih onemogočite v nastavitvah svojega brskalnika ali ne uporabljajte našega spletnega mesta. Če piškotke onemogočite, bodo nekatere možnosti igre Besede in slike nedostopne.
OK, razumem.