Gramatika gor­njo­lu­žič­ko­srp­skog jezika

Under construction!

Two stems of verbs


Every verb has two stems on the base of which its inflectional forms are made. These are the infinitive stem and the present stem. Both of them have to be remembered when learning a verb and are usually shown in the dictionary entries.

Individual forms are made always using only one of the stems, for instance the past compound uses only the infinitive stem, whereas the imperative uses only the present stem.



Present stem


Present stems are identical to the 3 sing. pres. forms and are divided into four classes according to their last vowel:

I -e- stems, ex.: njese carries, present stem: njese-;

II -i-/-y- stems (-y- only after s and z), ex.: spi sleeps, present stem: spi-;

III -a- stems, ex.: čita reads, present stem: čita-;

IV irregular verbs: je is, da gives, ma has, dźe goes (on foot), eats, knows, chce wants, smě may.



Infinitive stem


Most of the verbs have the infinitive form ending in (ex.: widźeć to see, spać to sleep). The infinitive stem of those verbs is the part of the infinitive form that remains after cutting the final (eg.: widźe-, spa-).

Some verbs have the infinitive form ending in -c (eg. pjec to bake, c can, to be able to). The infinitive stem of these verbs is made by replacing the final -c with -k- or -h- (ex.: pjek-, móh-).


Infinitive stems are divided into two groups:


1.

stems ending with a consonant, ex.: njes- (njesć) to carry, přas- (přasć) to spin, pjek- (pjec) to bake, móh- (móc) can, to be able to. When the last consonant of an infinitive stem is -s- it may in other forms that are made out of the stem:

a) not to change, ex. njesć – je njesł to carry – has carried, as the present stem has -s- here: njese carries

b) change into -t- or -d-, ex. přasć – je přadł to spin – has spun, as the present stem has -d- here: přadu I spin (the -t- and -d- can furtherly alternate with -ć- and -dź- respectively: předźe spins).

2.

stems ending with one of the following vowels: -i- -y- -ě- -e- -a-, ex.: wuči- (wučić) to teach, nosy- (nosyć) to carry, widźe- (widźeć) to see, kćě- (kćěć) to bloom, woła- (wołać) to call.

A dictionary entry of the verb wzać would look like this:

wzać wozmje perf. to take

which means that the infinitive stem of this verb is wza- and the present stem is wozmje-.



Back to the contents
Ovo web-mjesto upotrebljava kolačiće za sljedeće svrhe:

1. za spremanje vaših rezultata u igri Riječi i slike na vašem uređaju i prikaz statistike ovih rezultata na stranici Vaši rezultati; ovi podaci nisu dostupni drugim korisnicima, ne spremamo, ne analiziramo i ne dijelimo ih s drugima.

2. za prikazivanje Googleovih oglasa. Vidi dolje informacije o Google kolačićima za korisnike u EGP i izvan EGP.

Korisnici iz Europskog gospodarskog prostora

Oglasi Google koji se na našem web-mjestu prikazuju korisnicima iz EGP su neprilagođeni. Iako ti oglasi ne upotrebljavaju kolačiće za prilagodbu oglasa, upotrebljavaju kolačiće kako bi omogućili ograničavanje učestalosti prikazivanja, agregirano izvješćivanje o oglasima i za borbu protiv prevara i zloupotrebe.
Više o Googleovim kolačićima

Korisnici izvan Europskog gospodarskog prostora

Za korisnike iz zemalja izvan EGP upotrebljavamo kolačiće za prilagodbu oglasa. Također dijelimo informacije o vašoj upotrebi našeg web-mjesta s Googleom.
Više o Googleovim kolaćićima

Onemogućivanje kolačića

Ako ne pristajete na upotrebu kolačića, onemogućite ih u postavkama svog preglednika ili ne koristite našeg web-mjesta. Ako onemogućite kolačiće, nećete moći koristiti neke od funkcionalnosti igre Riječi i slike.
OK, razumijem.