Upper Sorbian Grammar

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Demonstrative pronouns

Upper Sorbian has the following declinable demonstrative pronouns:

tónle, tutón this (proximal – close to the speaker)
tón this (neutral in terms of distance)
tamón, tamny, wony that, yonder (distal – distant from the speaker)
tajki such


The above pronouns are inflected for gender, number and case and agree in all these three categories with the noun they reffer to or replace.

tón this (neutral in terms of distance)

Ntóntato (te**)tajtejćite
Gtoho (teho*)tejetohotejutych
Dtomu (temu*)tejtomutymajtym
Atohotóntuto (te**)tejutejtychte
I(z) tym(z) tej(z) tym(z) tymaj(z) tymi
L(w) tym(w) tej(w) tym(w) tymaj(w) tych

* archaic
** colloquial, used only attributively as an adjectival demonstrative pronoun, never used independetly as a nominal demonstrative pronoun

The proximal demonstratives tutón and tónle and the distal tamón have the same endings as tón. Tutón and tónle add the tu- prefix or the -le suffix respectively to each declensional form of tón, whereas tamón replaces the initial t- of declensional forms of tón with tam-, ex.:

tuton Nom.sing.masc., tuta Nom.sing.fem., tuto Nom.sing.neut.
tutoho Gen.sing.masc., tuteje Gen.sing.fem., tutoho Gen.sing.neut.

tónle Nom.sing.masc., tale Nom.sing.fem., tole Nom.sing.neut.
tohole Gen.sing.masc., tejele Gen.sing.fem., tohole Gen.sing.neut.

tamón Nom.sing.masc., tama Nom.sing.fem., tamo Nom.sing.neut.
tamoho Gen.sing.masc., tameje Gen.sing.fem., tamoho Gen.sing.neut.

tamny that, yonder

I(z) tamnym(z) tamnej(z) tamnym(z) tamnymaj(z) tamnymi
L(w) tamnym(w) tamnej(w) tamnym(w) tamnymaj(w) tamnych

wony that, yonder

I(z) wonym(z) wonej(z) wonym(z) wonymaj(z) wonymi
L(w) wonym(w) wonej(w) wonym(w) wonymaj(w) wonych

tajki such

I(z) tajkim(z) tajkej(z) tajkim(z) tajkimaj(z) tajkimi
L(w) tajkim(w) tajkej(w) tajkim(w) tajkimaj(w) tajkich


All the above mentioned demonstratives (appart from the colloquial sing.neut. te) are used as both adjectival demonstrative pronouns (called demonstrative determiners in English grammars) and nominal demonstrative pronouns (called demonstrative pronouns in English grammars).

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