Upper Sorbian Grammar

Under construction

Possessive pronouns


Independent declinable possessive pronouns

Upper Sorbian has the following possessive pronouns:

mój my
twój your (sing.)
naš our (plur.)
waš your (plur.)
swój one’s own

The above pronouns are inflected for gender, number and case and agree in all these three categories with the noun reffering to the possessed object:

mójbratr
my
Nom.sing.masc.
brother
Nom.sing.masc.
my brother

mojemubratrej
my
Dat.sing.masc.
brother
Dat.sing.masc.
to/for my brother

mojasotra
my
Nom.sing.fem.
sister
Nom.sing.fem.
my sister

mojejsotře
my
Dat.sing.fem.
sister
Dat.sing.fem.
to/for my sister

Usage of the reflexive possessive pronoun

The reflexive possessive pronoun is used instead of the regular possessive pronouns when the subject of a sentence and the possessor reffer to the same person:

regular possessive pronouns:

Ty maš moju knihu. You have my book.
Ja mam twoju knihu. I have your book.

vs. reflexive possessive pronoun:

Ty maš swoju knihu. You have your book.
(not: *Ty maš twoju knihu.)
Ja mam swoju knihu. I have my book.
(not: *Ja mam moju knihu.)


Personal pronouns in the Genitive as possessive pronouns

There are no separate possessive pronouns for the 3rd person possessors of all three numbers (corresponding to the English his, her, its, their) and for the 1st and 2nd person dual possessors. The Genitive forms of the respective personal pronouns are used instead.

jeho his, its (literally he Gen. or it Gen.)
jeje her (literally she Gen.)
jich their (literally they Gen.)
naju our (dual) (literally two of us Gen.)
waju your (dual) (literally two of you Gen.)

As these pronouns used in the possessive function have only the Genitive form of a fixed grammatical number they don't agree with the possessed object:

jehobratr
he
Gen.sing.masc.
brother
Nom.sing.masc.
his brother

jehobratrej
he
Gen.sing.masc.
brother
Dat.sing.masc.
to/for his brother

jehosotra
he
Gen.sing.masc.
sister
Nom.sing.fem.
his sister

jehosotře
he
Gen.sing.masc.
sister
Dat.sing.fem.
to/for his sister


Declension

1st person singular possessor pronoun
mój my

singulardualplural
masc.fem.neut.vir.nonvir.vir.nonvir.
Nmójmojamojemojejmojimoje
Gmojehomojejemojehomojejumojich
Dmojemumojejmojemumojimajmojim
Amojehomójmojumojemojejumojejmojichmoje
I(z) mojim(z) mojej(z) mojim(z) mojimaj(z) mojimi
L(w) mojim(w) mojej(w) mojim(w) mojimaj(w) mojich

2nd person singular possessor pronoun
twój your (sing.)

singulardualplural
masc.fem.neut.vir.nonvir.vir.nonvir.
Ntwójtwojatwojetwojejtwojitwoje
Gtwojehotwojejetwojehotwojejutwojich
Dtwojemutwojejtwojemutwojimajtwojim
Atwojehotwójtwojutwojetwojejutwojejtwojichtwoje
I(z) twojim(z) twojej(z) twojim(z) twojimaj(z) twojimi
L(w) twojim(w) twojej(w) twojim(w) twojimaj(w) twojich

1st person plural possessor pronoun
naš our

singulardualplural
masc.fem.neut.vir.nonvir.vir.nonvir.
Nnašnašanašenašejnašinaše
Gnašehonašejenašehonašejunašich
Dnašemunašejnašemunašimajnašim
Anašehonašnašunašenašejunašejnašichnaše
I(z) našim(z) našej(z) našim(z) našimaj(z) našimi
L(w) našim(w) našej(w) našim(w) našimaj(w) našich

2nd person plural possessor pronoun
waš your (plur.)

singulardualplural
masc.fem.neut.vir.nonvir.vir.nonvir.
Nwašwašawašewašejwašiwaše
Gwašehowašejewašehowašejuwašich
Dwašemuwašejwašemuwašimajwašim
Awašehowašwašuwašewašejuwašejwašichwaše
I(z) wašim(z) wašej(z) wašim(z) wašimaj(z) wašimi
L(w) wašim(w) wašej(w) wašim(w) wašimaj(w) wašich

reflexive possessive pronoun
swój one’s own

singulardualplural
masc.fem.neut.vir.nonvir.vir.nonvir.
Nswójswojaswojeswojejswojiswoje
Gswojehoswojejeswojehoswojejuswojich
Dswojemuswojejswojemuswojimajswojim
Aswojehoswójswojuswojeswojejuswojejswojichswoje
I(z) swojim(z) swojej(z) swojim(z) swojimaj(z) swojimi
L(w) swojim(w) swojej(w) swojim(w) swojimaj(w) swojich


Agreement

The grammatical number the possessive pronouns are inflected for reffers to the number of possessed object and not to the number of possessors:

To je moja kniha. This is my book.
To stej mojej knize. These are my [two] books.
To su moje knihi. These are my [more than two] books.

The number of possessors is marked by choosing the appropriate pronoun rather than its inflectional form:

To je moja kniha. This is my book.
To je naju kniha. This is a book of the two of us.
To je naša kniha. This is our book.



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