Upper Sorbian Grammar

THE PRESENT TENSE

The present tense forms use the present stem of a nonperfective verb. Perfective verbs doesn't have the present tense at all.

The following table shows the endings that are used when making the present tense forms:

-e- stems -i- / -y- stems -a- stems

sing. 1. -u -''u -a-m

2. -'e-š -i-š (-y-š) -a-š

3. -'e -i (-y) -a

du. 1. -'e-moj -i-moj (-y-moj) -a-moj

2. -'e-tej -i-tej (-y-tej) -a-tej

3. -'e-tej -i-tej (-y-tej) -a-tej

plur. 1. -'e-my -i-my (-y-my) -a-my

2. -'e-će -i-će (-y-će) -a-će

3. -'e-ja -''a -a-ja

The single apostrophe before an ending shows that the preceding consonant of the verb's stem alternates according to the rules that are explained here.

The double apostrophe before an ending shows that the preceding consonant of the verb's stem alternates according to the rules that are explained here.

In the 2nd and 3rd person dual the endings may also include -taj when the subject of an action is a masculine person, for instance:

Dwaj bratraj čitatej/čitataj knihu.

The two brothers are reading a book

Dwě sotře čitatej knihu.

The two sisters are reading a book

An -e- stem verb: njesć njese npf. to carry

singular dual plural

1 njesu njesemoj njesemy

2 njeseš njesetej njeseće

3 niese njesetej njeseja

An -i-/-y- stem verb: widźeć widźi npf. to see

singular dual plural

1 widźu widźimoj widźimy

2 widźiš widźitej widźiće

3 widźi widźitej widźa

An -i-/-y- stem verb: prosyć prosy npf. to ask

singular dual plural

1 prošu prosymoj prosymy

2 prosyš prosytej prosyće

3 prosy prosytej proša

An -a- stem verb: pisać pisa npf. to write

singular dual plural

1 pisam pisamoj pisamy

2 pisaš pisatej pisaće

3 pisa pisatej pisaja



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