Upper Sorbian Grammar


Declension of feminine nouns

Upper Sorbian feminine nouns in the nominative singular end with -a, or (much rarer) with a consonant. Those ones that end with -a may be both soft-stem (when the last consonant of the word's stem is bj, č, j, l, mj, nj, pj, rj, š, ć, wj or ž) and hard-stem (when the last consonant of their stem is b, c, d, h, ch, k, ł, m, n, p, r, s, t, w or z). Those which end with a consonant are hard-stem when they end with c, s or z; in all other cases they are soft-stem, even if its last consonant's softness may not be apparent in the nominative form (it becomes clear in cases formed with a diffrent than a zero ending). This group also includes some irregular nouns.

The following table shows the case endings of feminine nouns:

singulardualplural
N-a/-0-'e/-y/-i-y/-i/-e
G-y/-i/-e-ow-ow/-i
D-'e/-y/-i-omaj-am
A-u/-0=N=N
I-u-omaj-ami/-emi
L-'e/-y/-i-omaj-ach
V=N=N=N

The apostrophe before an ending (eg -'e) shows that the preceeding consonant of the noun's stem is softened and/or alternates according to the rules that are explained here.

The symbol -0 stands for a zero ending (an ending that is not represented by any sound in speech or by any letter in writting).

Click here to see the alternations that take place during the process of declension of nouns including the ó vowel.

 

Some of the feminine case endings need additional comment:

Gen.sing., Nom.plur., Acc.plur.
The -y ending is proper for hard-stem nouns (both with Nom.sing. ending with -a and with a consonant) excluding those that have h, ch or k as the last consonant of their stem, which have here the -i ending.
The -e ending is used with all soft-stem feminine nouns.

Dat.sing., Loc.sing., Nom.du., Acc.du.
Soft-stem nouns have the -i ending. Those of the hard-stem nouns that have c, s or z as the last consonant of their stem have the -y ending. The other hard-stem nouns have the -'e ending.

Acc.sing.
Those nouns which in the Nom.sing. end with -a have the -u ending, and those the Nom.sing. of which end with a consonant have the zero ending.

Gen.plur.
All nouns may have the -ow ending and the soft-stem ones may also alternatively have the -i ending.

Ins.plur.
The -ami ending is proper for hard-stem nouns and the -emi for those of the soft-stem type.

The following tables show some examples of feminine nouns' declensions:

A hard-stem noun ending with -a:
wróna crow

singulardualplural
Nwrónawrónjewróny
Gwrónywrónowwrónow
Dwrónjewrónomajwrónam
Awrónuwrónjewróny
I(z) wrónu(z) wrónomaj(z) wrónami
L(we) wrónje(we) wrónomaj(we) wrónach
Vwróna!wrónje!wróny!

A velar-stem noun ending in -a:
muka flour

singulardualplural
Nmukamucemuki
Gmukimukowmukow
Dmucemukomajmukam
Amukumucemuki
I(z) muku(z) mukomaj(z) mukami
L(w) muce(w) mukomaj(w) mukach
Vmuka!muce!muki!

A hard-stem noun ending with c s or z:
pomoc help

singulardualplural
Npomocpomocypomocy
Gpomocypomocowpomocow
Dpomocypomocomajpomocam
Apomocpomocypomocy
I(z) pomocu(z) pomocomaj(z) pomocami
L(w) pomocy(w) pomocomaj(w) pomocach
Vpomoc!pomocy!pomocy!

A soft-stem noun ending with another consonant:
kosć bone

singulardualplural
Nkosćkosćikosće
Gkosćekosćowkosćow/kosći
Dkosćikosćomajkosćam
Akosćkosćikosće
I(z) kosću(z) kosćomaj(z) kosćemi
L(w) kosći(w) kosćomaj(w) kosćach
Vkosć!kosći!kosće!



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