Upper Sorbian Grammar

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Declension of neuter nouns

Upper Sorbian neuter nouns in the nominative singular end with -o, or (much rarer, only after nj and ć) with -e. Some of them in Gen., Dat., Ins., and Loc. sing. and in all the cases of dual and plural lenghten their stems with -et-/-eć- or -en(j)-. It is always shown in the word's entry in the dictionary, as the Genitive (a lenghtened form) appears there along with the nominative (the basic form). Some of the neuter nouns have irregularities in their declension patterns.

Neuter nouns have the following set of endings:

singular
stem:softc z shardvelar
N-e, -o-o
G-a
Du
A= nominative
I-om
L-u-’e (-u)-u
V= nominative
dual
stem:softc z shardvelar
N-i-y-’e
G-ow (-i)-ow
D-omaj
A= nominative
I= dative
L= dative
V= nominative
plural
stem:softc z shardvelar
N-a
G-ow (-i)-ow
D-am
A= nominative
I-emi-ami
L-ach
V= nominative

Consonant and vowel changes


The palatalising -’e ending

An apostrophe before an ending (-’e) signals that some consonants when preceeding this ending alternate as shown below:

consonant changeexample
N sing. > N du.
meaning
d > blido > blietable
t > ćmyto > myćeprize
ł > lčoło > čoleforehead
k > cjabłuko > jabłuceapple

Whenever any other consonant preceeds an ending marked with an apostrophe, the consonant turns into its soft counterpart:

consonant changeexample
N sing. > N du.
meaning
n > njhrono > hronjesaying
w > wjsłowo > słowjeword

In contrast to masculine and feminine nouns, the -tr- cluster in front of this ending in neuter nouns does not change into -tř- but into -trj-.

consonant changeexample
N sing. > N du.
meaning
tr > trjnutro > nutrjeinside

This ending in neuter nouns is only used with hard-stem and velar-stem nouns.


Additional comments on some endings


L sing.

Soft-stem nouns and those of the hard-stem nouns whose stem ends with c, s or z have the -u ending. Hard-stem nouns, excluding those mentioned above, have the -'e ending. Nouns with a stem ending with h, ch or k may appear with both endings.

N du.

Soft-stem nouns have the -i ending. Those of hard-stem nouns that have c, s or z as the last consonant of their stem have the -y ending. The other hard-stem nouns have the -'e ending.

I plur.

The -ami ending is used with hard-stem nouns and the -emi with those of the soft-stem type.


Examples


A hard-stem noun with stem not ending in c, s, z:
trašidło monster

singulardualplural
Ntrašidłotrašidletrašidła
Gtrašidłatrašidłowtrašidłow
Dtrašidłutrašidłomajtrašidłam
Atrašidłotrašidletrašidła
I(z) trašidłom(z) trašidłomaj(z) trašidłami
L(w) trašidle(w) trašidłomaj(w) trašidłach
Vtrašidło!trašidle!trašidła!


A hard-stem noun with stem ending in c s or z:
słowjeso verb

singulardualplural
Nsłowjesosłowjesysłowjesa
Gsłowjesasłowjesowsłowjesow
Dsłowjesusłowjesomajsłowjesam
Asłowjesosłowjesysłowjesa
I(ze) słowjesom(ze) słowjesomaj(ze) słowjesami
L(w) słowjesu(w) słowjesomaj(w) słowjesach
Vsłowjeso!słowjesy!słowjesa!


A velar-stem noun:
křidleško small wing

singulardualplural
Nkřidleškokřidlešcekřidleška
Gkřidleškakřidleškowkřidleškow
Dkřidleškukřidleškomajkřidleškam
Akřidleškokřidlešcekřidleška
I(z) křidleškom(z) křidleškomaj(z) křidleškami
L(w) křidlešku(w) křidleškomaj(w) křidleškach
Vkřidleško!křidlešce!křidleška!


A soft-stem noun:
žiwjenje life

singulardualplural
Nžiwjenježiwjenižiwjenja
Gžiwjenjažiwjenjowžiwjenjow
Džiwjenjužiwjenjomajžiwjenjam
Ažiwjenježiwjenižiwjenja
I(z) žiwjenjom(z) žiwjenjomaj(z) žiwjenjemi
L(w) žiwjenju(w) žiwjenjomaj(w) žiwjenjach
Vžiwjenje!žiwjeni!žiwjenja!


A noun that lenghtens its stem with -at-/-eć-:
kačo duckling

singulardualplural
Nkačokačećikačata
Gkačećakačećowkačatow
Dkačećukačećomajkačatam
Akačećokačećikačata
I(z) kačećom(z) kačećomaj(z) kačatami
L(w) kačeću(w) kačećomaj(w) kačatach
Vkačo!kačeći!kačata!


A noun that lenghtens its stem with -en(j)-:
promjo ray

singulardualplural
Npromjopromjenipromjenja
Gpromjenjapromjenjowpromjenjow
Dpromjenjupromjenjomajpromjenjam
Apromjopromjenipromjenja
I(z) promjenjom(z) promjenjomaj(z) promjenjemi
L(w) promjenju(w) promjenjomaj(w) promjenjach
Vpromjo!promjeni!promjenja!


Irregular neuter nouns

woko eye

singulardualplural
Nwokowočiwoči
Gwokawočowwočow
Dwokuwočomajwočam/wočom
Awokowočiwoči
I(z) wokom(z) wočomaj(z) wočemi
L(we) woku(we) wočomaj(we) wočach
Vwoko!woči!woči!


wucho ear

singulardualplural
Nwuchowušiwuši
Gwuchawušowwušow
Dwuchuwušomajwušam/wušom
Awuchowušiwuši
I(z) wuchom(z) wušomaj(z) wušemi
L(we) wuchu(we) wušomaj(we) wušach
Vwucho!woči!woči!


dźěćo child

singulardualplural
Ndźěćodźěsćidźěći
Gdźěsćadźěsćow/dźěsćidźěći
Ddźěsćudźěsćomajdźěćom
Adźěćodźěsćidźěći
I(z) dźěsćom(z) dźěsćomaj(z) dźěćimi
L(w) dźěsću(w) dźěsćomaj(w) dźěćoch
Vdźěćo!dźěsći!dźěći!


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