Upper Sorbian Grammar

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Declinable parts of speech

Declinable parts of speech are nouns, nominal pronouns (including personal pronouns), adjectives, adjectival pronouns and some of the numerals. They all inflect for number (singular, dual, plural) and case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, vocative).


Every noun is inherently assigned to one of the three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), whereas the other declinable parts of speech inflect for gender and agree in gender with the noun they relate to.

jedyn mały hólc (masc.) one little boy
jedna mała holca (fem.) one little girl
jedno małe blido (neut.) one small table

The masculine nouns are furtherly divided into three groups: virile (denoting male human beings), animated (denoting animals assigned to the masculine gender) and inanimated (denoting other objects assigned to the masculine gender).


Upper Sorbian is one of only three living Indoeuropean languages (the other two being Lower Sorbian and Slovene) to have fully retained the old dual number, which is used when referring to precisely two entities.

nan (sing.) father
nanaj (du.) (two) fathers
nanojo (plur.) (more than two) fathers

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