Upper Sorbian Grammar

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Cardinal numerals

Cardinal numerals function as noun determiners and agree with the noun they reffer to in case and gender.

jedyn one

As the three-gender distinction is fully preserved only in singular, jedyn is the sole numeral that has separate masculine, feminine and neuter forms. It is also the only cardinal numeral that decline for number. The non-singular forms have a collective meaning (roughly corresponding to English one pair of and one group of), the dual forms being very rare if not obsolete (they are not attested in the Upper Sorbian Text Corpus, although theoretically possible).

I(z) jednym(z) jednej(z) jednym(z) jednymaj(z) jednymi
L(w) jednym(w) jednej(w) jednym(w) jednymaj(w) jednych

dwaj two

The numeral dwaj two is used with nouns in the dual number and has a masculine form and a common feminine-neuter form.

I(z) dwěmaj
L(wo) dwěmaj

tři three and štyri four

The numerals tři three and štyri four have distinct virile and nonvirile forms in Nominative and Accusative.

I(z) třomi
L(w) třoch

Cardinal numerals above two and under twenty

Cardinal numerals from the span three to twenty are used with nouns in plural and have two distinc gender forms: virile and nonvirile.

3 třo tři třeći

4 štyrjo štyri stwórty

5 pjećo pjeć pjaty

6 šesćo šesć šesty

7 sedmjo sydom / sedm sedmy

8 wosmjo wósom / wosm wosmy

9 dźewjećo dźewjeć dźewjaty

10 dźesaćo dźesać dźesaty

11 jědenaćo jědenaće jědnaty

12 dwanaćo dwanaće dwanaty

13 třinaćo třinaće třinaty

14 štyrnaćo štyrnaće štyrnaty

15 pjatnaćo pjatnaće pjatnaty

16 šěsnaćo šěsnaće šěsnaty

17 sydomnaćo sydomnaće sydomnaty

18 wósmnaćo wósmnaće wósmnaty

19 dźewjetnaćo dźewjetnače dźewjatnaty

20 dwacećo dwaceći dwacety

21 jedyn-a-dwacećo jedyn-a-dwaceći jedyn-a-dwacety

22 dwaj-a-dwacećo dwaj-a-dwaceći dwaj-a-dwacety

23 tři-a-dwacećo tři-a-dwaceći tři-a-dwacety

30 třicećo třiceći třicety

31 jedyn-a-třicećo jedyn-a-třiceći jedyn-a-třicety

40 štyrcećo štytrceći štytcety

50 pjećdźesaćo pjećdźesat pjećdźesaty

60 šěsćdźesaćo šěsćdźesat šěsdźesaty

70 sedmdźesaćo sedmdźesat sydmdźesaty

80 wósmdźesaćo wósmdźesat wósmdźesaty

90 dźewjedźesaćo dźewjedźesat dźewjećdźesaty

100 sto stoty

101 sto a jedyn jedyn a stoty

126 sto a šěst-a-dwaceći sto a šěst-a-dwcety

200 dwě sće dwustoty

300 tři sta třistoty

400 štyri sta štyristoty

500 pjeć stow pjećistoty

600 šěsć stow šesćistoty

700 sydom stow

800 wósom stow

900 dźewjeć stow

1000 tysac tysacty

1001 tysac a jedyn

2000 dwaj tysacaj

3000 tři tysacy

5000 pjeć tysac

10000 dźesać tysac

100000 sto tysac

The numerals of the 21, 22, 23, 31, 56, 72, 87, 91 type don't ever have the ˮ-ˮ dash in them. We have used those dashes only to show how these numerals are formed.

The cardinal numeral jedyn (one) has the following declension pattern:

masculine feminine neuter

N jedyn jedna jedne

G jednoho jedneje jednoho

D jednomu jednej jednomu

A =G/=N jednu jedne

I (z) jednym (z) jednej (z) jednym

L (w) jednym (w) jednej (w) jednym

The cardinal numeral dwaj (two) has the following declension pattern:

masculine feminine

and neuter

N dwaj dwě





A =G/=N dwě


(z) dwěmaj


(w) dwěmaj

The cardinal numeral třo (three) and štyrjo (four) have the following declension pattern:

virile nonvirile

N třo tři





A třoch tři


(z) třomi


(w) třoch

The cardinal numeral pjeć (five) and all the higher cardinal numerals (excluding those that are declined as if they were nouns) have the following declension pattern:

virile nonvirile

N pjećo pjeć

G pjećoch pjećih / pjeći

D pjećom pjećim / pjeći

A pjećoch pjeć

I (z) pjećomi pjećimi / pjeći

L (w) pjećoch pjećich / pjeći

The cardinal numerals sto (hundred), tysac (thousand), milion (million), miliarda (billion) are declined as if they were normal nouns.

The ordinal numerals are declined as if they were normal adjectives.

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