Upper Sorbian Grammar

under construction

Personal pronouns

Upper Sorbian has the following personal pronouns: ja I, ty you (sing.), wón he, wona she, wono it, mój two of us, wój two of you, wonaj two of them (vir.), wonej two of them (nonvir.), my we (more than two), wy you (more than two), woni they (vir.), wone they (nonvir.).

The personal pronouns don't have a separate Vocative form, when addressing the Nominative 2nd person forms are used.

1st person pronouns
Gmnje, mjenajunas
Dmni, minamajnam
Amnje, mjenajunas
I(ze) mnu(z) namaj(z) nami
L(we) mni(w) namaj(w) nas
2nd person pronouns
Gtebje, ćewajuwas
Dtebi, ćiwamajwam
Atebje, ćewajuwas
I(z) tobu(z) wamaj(z) wami
L(w) tebi(w) wamaj(w) was
3rd person pronouns
Gmasc.njeho, jehonjeju, jejunich, jich
fem.njeje, jeje
neut.njeho, jeho
Dmasc.njemu, jemunimaj, jimajnim, jim
fem.njej, jej
neut.njemu, jemu
Am.vir.njeho, jehonjeju, jejunich, jich
m.ani.njej, jejnje, je
m.ina.njón, jón
fem.nju, ju
neut.nje/njo, je/jo
Imasc.(z) nim(z) nimaj(z) nimi
fem.(z) njej
neut.(z) nim
Lmasc.(w) nim(w) nimaj(w) nich
fem.(w) njej
neut.(w) nim

Multiple case forms

The personal pronouns in many grammatical cases have more than one form.

The 1st and the 2nd person pronouns in their G A D sing. have two forms; the longer one is used only at the beginning of a sentence or after a preposition or when the pronoun is logically stressed and the shorter one is used in other positions:

Sym će widźał. I've seen you.
Tebje sym widźał. I've seen you. (It's you whom I've seen.)
Njepóńdu tam bjez tebje. I will not go there without you.

Daj mi knihu. Give me a/the book.
Mnje daj knihu. Give a/the book to me (not to anyone else).
Njemóžeće bjeze mnje spěwać. You can't sing without me.

The 3rd person pronouns in many cases have two variants, one of which begins with n- and the other one with j-. The first one is used only after prepositions, and the second one in all other positions (also at the beginning of a sentence):

Dam jemu knihu. I give him a book.
Jemu wo tym njepowědaj. Don't tell him about it.
Du k njemu. I'm going to him,

Accusative singular of the 3rd person pronoun has special forms not only for the three basic grammatical genders, but it makes a difference between masculine forms when a pronoun stands for a person or an animal (animated) and when it doesn't stand for a person nor an animal (inanimated).

To je całta (fem.). Widźiš ju? This is a bun. Can you see it?
To je słóńco (neut.). Widźiš je? This is the sun. Can you see it?
To je pos (masc.anim.). Widźiš jeho? This is a dog. Can you see it?
To je chlěb (masc.inanim.). Widźiš jón? This is bread. Can you see it?

Nominative and accusative dual and plural of the 3rd person pronoun have two pairs of forms: virile (when a pronoun substitutes a masculine noun denotes a person) and nonvirile (when a pronoun substitutes a feminine, neutral or masculine-nonpersonal noun).

Tam su hólcy (vir.). Widźiš jich? Hladam na nich. To su woni.
There are the boys. Can you see them? I am looking at them. It's them.
Tam su psy/ženy/dźěći (nonvir.). Widźiš je? Hladam na nje To su wone.
There are the dogs/women/children. Can you see them? I am looking at them. It's them.
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